Five sugar gliders ( Petaurus breviceps ), ranging in age from Three mo to three.5 yr of age, and one opossum ( Didelphis virginianus ), age 4.5 mo, offered for elective orchiectomy and scrotal ablation. The LigaSure™ machine was safely used for orchiectomy and scrotal ablation in each species. Surgical time with the LigaSure was roughly Four sec. No grooming of the incision website or self-mutilation was seen within the first 72 hr postoperatively. One sugar glider required postoperative wound care roughly 10 days postoperatively following incision-site grooming by a conspecific.
The LigaSure supplies a speedy, technologically easy and secure surgical approach for scrotal ablation and orchiectomy within the marsupial affected person that minimizes surgical, anesthetic, and restoration instances. Our research reveals that aerodynamic adaptation may probably result in sturdy choice and modification of vertebral formulae and/or proportions based mostly on locomotive mode regardless of evolutionary and developmental constraints.
The goal of the current research is to supply the primary massive knowledge set on vertebral formulae and proportions, and look at their relationship with totally different locomotive modes in colugos (Dermoptera), tree shrews (Scandentia), and rodents (Rodentia), which have been thought of much less variable as a result of they have been thought to have a plesiomorphic variety of 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae.
The following outcomes have been obtained: (1) intra-/interspecies variability and geographical variation in thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar counts have been current in two gliding colugo species and 12 terrestrial/arboreal tree shrew species; (2) in our examined mammals, some aerodynamic mammals, similar to colugos, southern flying squirrels, scaly-tailed squirrels, and bats, confirmed exceptionally excessive quantities of intraspecific variation of thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar counts, and sugar gliders and a few semi-aquatic rodents additionally confirmed some variation; (3) longer thoracic and shorter lumbar vertebrae have been usually shared traits among the many examined mammals, aside from flying squirrels (Pteromyini) and scaly-tailed squirrels.
Iron storage problems in captive wild mammals: the comparative proof.
Excessive burden of iron, or iron storage illness (ISD), has been reported in a big number of captive mammal species, together with searching rhinoceroses; tapirs; fruit bats; lemurs; marmosets and another primates; sugar gliders; hyraxes; some rodents and lagomorphs; dolphins; and a few carnivores; together with procyonids and pinnipeds.
This report collates the comparative proof for species’ susceptibility, recognizing that the information for mammal species are restricted. Differences reported within the incidence of ISD between amenities, or inside amenities over durations that span administration adjustments, have been reported in particular person circumstances however are underused in ISD analysis.
Given the species composition, the speculation that evolutionary variations to the iron content material and availability within the pure eating regimen decide a species’ susceptibility to ISD (within the face of deviating iron content material and availability in diets provided in captivity) appears believable in lots of circumstances. But exceptions, and extra species putatively inclined based mostly on this rationale, must be investigated.
Whereas screening for ISD must be routine in zoo animal necropsy, screening of stay people could also be applied for precious species, to resolve on therapeutic measures similar to chelator utility or phlebotomy. Whatever the explanations for ISD susceptibility, lowering dietary iron ranges to upkeep necessities of the species in query appears to be a logical, safety measure.
Metabolic results of cortisol, ACTH, adrenalin and insulin within the marsupial sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps.
The results of cortisol, ACTH, adrenalin and insulin on indices of carbohydrate, fats and protein metabolism have been investigated within the aware marsupial sugar glider Petaurus breviceps. Short-term i.v. infusion of cortisol at dose charges of 0.02, 0.2 and 1.Zero mg/kg per h brought on the plasma glucose focus to rise sharply from the conventional vary of three.3-4.
Four to eight.1-8.7 mmol/l on the finish of the infusion interval with out important alteration in plasma free fatty acid (FFA), amino acid or urea concentrations. Infusions of ACTH at dose charges of 0.02, 0.06 and 0.45 IU/kg per h brought on an analogous rise in plasma glucose focus; nonetheless, this was now accompanied by an elevation in plasma FFA focus, however once more with out important adjustments in both plasma amino acid or urea concentrations. Infusion of adrenalin at 10 micrograms/kg per h brought on a rise within the plasma concentrations of each glucose and FFA.
Intravenous injections of 0.15 IU insulin/kg brought on a speedy and marked lower within the plasma glucose focus inside 30 min and a rise within the plasma free cortisol focus. Associated with this variation was a marked rise within the plasma focus of each FFA and free cortisol.
The rise in free cortisol was, nonetheless, considerably diminished by infusion of glucose. Pretreatment with 5 day by day i.m. injections of 1 mg cortisol acetate/kg, which produced a rise in plasma free cortisol focus to close the utmost of the physiological vary, brought on a marked discount in insulin sensitivity. Cortisol pretreatment brought on a rise within the plasma FFA and amino acid concentrations.
Petaurus breviceps is very delicate to the metabolic results of glucocorticoids and is analogous on this respect to the brush-tailed possum Trichosurus vulpecula. The interactive results between insulin and glucocorticoids on carbohydrate, fats and protein metabolism in Petaurus breviceps are just like these proven by Trichosurus vulpecula and a few eutherian mammals however distinction with the sample described for 2 macropodid marsupials, the purple kangaroo Macropus rufus and the quokka Setonix brachyurus.