Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in lipid peroxidation inside the living bodies, and membrane lipids are one of the major targets of ROS. During the peroxidation process, a variery of aldehydes are formed. 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is an alpha, beta unsatulated aldehyde that can be formed by peroxidation of omega-6 unsatulated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Especially, 4-HNE formed inside living body is reported to originate from phospholipid-bound arachidonic acid. 4-HNE may be one of the most reliable biomarker of lipid peroxidation.
||4-HNE-modified Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin
Prepared as ascite, and ammnonium sulphate purified.
||Lyophilized Powder (containing 20 µg or 100 µg of IgG)
||This antibody show almost negligible reactivity with proteins that were treated with other aldehydes, such as 2-nonenal, 2-hexenal, 1-hexanal, 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal,formaldehyde, or glutaraldehyde.
||Immunohistochemistry and western blotting.
||Less than -20°C for 5 years. When transport, stable at least 7 days at room temperature.
This product was changed from ascites to tissue culture supernatant on 28th February 2018. Please note that the dilutions may need to be adjusted accordingly. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact our scientific support team.
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Enhancing neutralization of Plasmodium falciparum using a novel monoclonal antibody against the rhoptry-associated membrane antigen
The pathogenesis of malaria is associated with blood-stage infection and there is strong evidence that antibodies specific to parasite blood-stage antigens can control parasitemia. This provides a strong rational for applying blood-stage antigen components in a multivalent vaccine, as the induced antibodies in combination can enhance protection. The Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry-associated membrane antigen (PfRAMA) is a promising vaccine target, due to its fundamental role in merozoite invasion and low level of polymorphism. Polyclonal antibodies against PfRAMA are able to inhibit P. falciparum growth and interact synergistically when combined with antibodies against P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding protein 5 (PfRh5) or cysteine-rich protective antigen (PfCyRPA).
In this study, we identified a novel PfRAMA-specific mAb with neutralizing activity, which in combination with PfRh5- or PfCyRPA-specific mAbs potentiated the neutralizing effect. By applying phage display technology, we mapped the protective epitope to be in the C-terminal region of PfRAMA. Our results confirmed previous finding of synergy between PfRAMA-, PfRh5- and PfCyRPA-specific antibodies, thereby paving the way of testing these antigens (or fragments of these antigens) in combination to improve the efficacy of blood-stage malaria vaccines. The results emphasize the importance of directing antibody responses towards protective epitopes, as the majority of anti-PfRAMA mAbs were unable to inhibit merozoite invasion of erythrocytes.
SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 Variant Evades Neutralization by Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies
Monoclonal antibody therapy for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been highly successful in decreasing disease severity; however, the recent emergence of the heavily mutated Omicron variant has posed a challenge to this treatment strategy. The Omicron variant BA.1 has been found to evade neutralization by the Regeneron and Eli Lilly therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, while Sotrovimab and the Evusheld monoclonal antibody cocktail retain significant neutralizing activity. A newly emerged variant, Omicron BA.2, containing the BA.1 mutations plus an additional 6 mutations and 3 deletions, 3 of which lie in the receptor binding domain, has been found to be spreading with increased transmissibility.
We report here, using a spike protein-pseudotyped lentivirus assay, that Omicron BA.2 is not neutralized with detectable titer by any of the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, including Sotrovimab and the Evusheld monoclonal antibodies. The results demonstrate the difficulty of identifying broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and the importance of the T cell response from which immunoevasion is more difficult.
PGNMID and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody: a therapeutic challenge
Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) designates disorders induced by a monoclonal protein secreted by plasma cells or B-cell clones in patients who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma or other B-cell malignancies. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits (PGNMID) is a form MGRS. Until now, no guidelines to decide the best therapeutic approach to manage PGNMID exist, and most patients progress to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) without therapy.
Recently, daratumumab has showed an acceptable improvement in proteinuria and renal function in patients with PGNMID. We report the clinical outcome and the histological renal evolution and treatment complication of our patient, who was initially treated with a combination regimen including bortezomib, dexamethasone, and cyclophosphamide and then with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody-based regimen.
Development and Characterization of New Monoclonal Antibodies Against Porcine Interleukin-17A and Interferon-Gamma
Current research efforts require a broad range of immune reagents, but those available for pigs are limited. The goal of this study was to generate priority immune reagents for pigs and pipeline them for marketing. Our efforts were aimed at the expression of soluble swine cytokines and the production of panels of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to these proteins. Swine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) recombinant proteins were produced using yeast expression and used for monoclonal antibody (mAb) production resulting in panels of mAbs. We screened each mAb for cross-species reactivity with orthologs of IL-17A or IFNγ and checked each mAb for inhibition by other related mAbs, to assign mAb antigenic determinants.
For porcine IL-17A, the characterization of a panel of 10 mAbs identified eight different antigenic determinants; interestingly, most of the mAbs cross-reacted with the dolphin recombinant ortholog. Likewise, the characterization of a panel of nine anti-PoIFNγ mAbs identified four different determinants; most of the mAbs cross-reacted with dolphin, bovine, and caprine recombinant orthologs.
There was a unique reaction of one anti-PoIFNγ mAb that cross-reacted with the zebrafish recombinant ortholog. The αIL-17A mAbs were used to develop a quantitative sandwich ELISA detecting the yeast expressed protein as well as native IL-17A in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) supernatants. Our analyses showed that phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin stimulation of PBMC induced significant expression of IL-17A by CD3+ T cells as detected by several of our mAbs. These new mAbs expand opportunities for immunology research in swine.